بعض الشيء عن كل شيء © Asmaa Khairy

Archive for July, 2013

مراسلتكم من العالم الموازي

بعيط.

دي الحاجة الوحيدة الي عايزة افتكرها لما لما اجي اقرا الكلام ده لو فضلت عايشة .. اني دلوقتي بعيط..

في 17 يناير 2011 طلعت دعوة نعمل ثورة زي ما عملوا في تونس.. وانه بس قبل ما نوافق لازم نعرف انه في 98 واحد ماتو عشان الثورة تنجح وانه هنضطر ندفع الثمن من حياتنا ومش بعيد يكون اكبر

كلنا حسينا نفسنا قادرين ندفع الثمن والفكرة كانت حلوة.. كنت في 3 ثانوي وكأني حسيت ده الرهان الصح على مستقبلي ودعمت الثورة بكل ما استطيع وقتها

تويتر ونقل الاخبار وترجمتها وخط سير المسيرات والتويت voice وغيرها .. مقال عجيب كده كتبته وبعته لكل الكبار اصحاب اهلي الي اعرفهم واقنعت الناس بالثورة

النضال في المدرسة واقناع الناس انه مبارك وحش وانه الناس الي بتموت دي هي الامل الوحيد في بكره احسن لينا ولولاد المدرسين

وخلص الـ 18 يوم .. ومشيوووو ناس كتيييييييييير من الميدان والناس كلها توجهت لدهن الرصيف وتقولنا احنا اهدوا بقى.. مش مشولكم لمبارك

ايوة مشوا مبارك بس ايه ده؟!

مش مهم، المهم 12 و13 فبراير الناس اضطرت تمشي عشان خاطر كان خلاص الناس الي نايمة على جنازير الدبابات عشان خاطر ميضيقوش الميدان مشيو .. وبعدين كان اعتصام مجلس الوزراء عشان شفيق يمشي.. ساعتها كان اول فض اعتصام واول محاكمة عسكرية لعمرو البحيري

وبعديها كانت في مسيرة في يوم المرأة العالمي واتقبض عليها ناحية اعتصام صغير كان في التحرير بكام خيمة وساعتها حصل حوار كشوف العذرية الي فضلنا فيه لمدة شهرين وشوية لحد ما الـ CNN خدت اعتراف من جنرال (يقال انه السيسي) انه حصل ولحماية المتظاهرات

طبعًا وقتها كنا قدام الرأي العام الناس الوحشة الي مش ليها لزمة والي بتعطل الحياة وووووووووو

وفي الفترة ما بين 13 فبراير لحد يمكن 8 مارس تقريبًا كان في لجنة عبيطة بترقع دستور 71، بتعدل في 9 مواد كده ..

المهم عدلوهم زي ما عدولهم

وانا كنت مع لأ .. لأني ضد ترقيع الدستور

المهم ايه الي حصل؟ (غير الحشد الغشيم والاهبل) 77.2 % من المصوتين صوتوا لنعم

والمفروض يوم 22 مارس لما اعلنت النتيجة كان يتم اعلان انه في دستوري وكده ورئيس المحكمة الدستورية يمسك (ده بعدنا) وتتعمل 50 حاجة كده ملهاش لزمة اقولها لانه محصلتش

المهم يعني

جم العسكر.. عملوا (((انقلاب عسكري على شرعية الشعب))) والشعارات الهبلة بتاعة دلوقتي

وعملوا اعلان دستوري من 63 مادة… والاخوان والاسلاميين وناس تانية ( اللي حشدوا لنعم ) قالوا آمين للاستهبال ده

ويا سيدي وصلنا انه هيعدلوا قانون الاحزاب

وعدلوه ومفهمتش منه حاجة وبعدين عدلوا قانون الانتخابات وعملوا انتخابات مجلس الشعب

في الفترة دي حصل اكتر من حاجة

-رامي فخري اتقتل على طريق مصر اسماعيلية برصاص الجيش ومحدش قال حاجة الا اصحابه ومجاش حقه ولا جت سيرته حتى

– 1 و8 ابريل لمحاكمة مبارك وقت ما نزلوا ضباط 8 ابريل ونزل العسكر وراهم بكتيبة كاملة ولا متفهمش دي كانت ايه وفضوا الميدان عن بكرة ابيه ومات احدنا

15 مايو ساعة لما الناس نزلت تندد بالنكبة قاموا اضربوا بكعوب البنادق واتقالهم “ارفع راسك فوق انت مصري” ولما يرفعوا راسهم يضربوا”

و27 مايو جمعة استكمال الثورة .. عند الناحية التانية اسمها ثورة العلمانين والمسيحين والزناديق والكفرة …

وبعدين 28 يونيو .. ساعة لما ضربوا ام الشهيد بالشلوت قدام مسرح البالون ثم، ضربوا التحرير ومحيطه بالغاز الـ CS كنا لسه بنتعرف عليه

وبعدين بعدين اعتصام 8 يوليو .. الامل الحلو 🙂 وبعدين مسيرة 22 و23 يوليو وموت محمد محسن ومحاولات الاخوان انهم يخلوا اهله يقبلوا الدية

* نفس اعمق من عميق بكتييييييييييييير *

وبعدين

فض الاعتصام في 1 اغسطس وضرب المعتصمين واهالي الشهداء ودخول المسجد بالبيادات. وبعدين فض فطار صغير مكنش فيه 100 واحد بس عشان الاوامر وكده  في 5 اغسطس

وبعدين 9/9 و30/9 وموت 3 في الشهر ده واعتقال ناس صحابنا فضلوا في السجن شهور لحد ما ربنا كرم

وبعدين 9 اكتوبر ماسبيرو بتاعة الحزب الوطني الي هيج المسيحين عشان خاطر حل المحليات وتضييع منافعهم وكده وانه يستاهلوا عشان خاطر هما بيمشوا ورا الفلول

وبعدين خدنا حق التصويت للمصريين في الخارج 25 اكتوبر 2011 (آه والله خدناه .. انتزعناه نزعا.. مكنش حق .. والله خدناه بقضية وبعد سحلة 7 شهور .. وربنا)

وبعديها محمد محمود

*مش قادرة اكتب*

بعد محمد محمود بيوم كانت انتخابات المصريين في الخارج بتبدأ

وبعديها بـ 3 ايام كانت الانتخابات في مصر

ويا رب خدنا وريح ام الشعب

المهم

برضه في محمد محمود تاني يوم استقال عصام شرف وبقت الدنيا سداح مداح ومتفهمش مين الي مسؤول عن الدنيا

خلصت محمد محمود وقااموا عينوا الجنزوري ابن الـــــــ ناس الكويسين

قاموا صحابنا راحوا اعتصموا قدام باب مجلس الوزراء ومهواش داخل .. عايزين حد نظيف

اول يوم مات احمد سرور لان مدرعة امن مركز دهسته

بعد يمكن 18 او 19 يوم كان فض الاعتصام بالمنظر الي الكل عارفه

وايه الي وداها هناك

وحرقوا كتاب وصف مصر

وبيضيعوا تراثنا

وحرقوا المجمع العلمي …

ووساخة المبنى اهم من البني ادم

وبعدين نزلوا يحتفلوا بنجاح الثورة في 25 يناير 2012 (هما الي قالوا مش انا) (هما صحابي لا يندرجوا تحتيها)

دي 2011

2012 مليانة حوادث سودة ..

اعتبروا التدوينة دي ليها تكملة وحشوة هنا مليانة تفاصيل 2012 ماشي؟

نوصل للنهادة

او من 3 يوليو

كل الي قالوه عننا اتقال عليهم

آه والله حتى المبنى اهم من البني ادم

واحنا كنا بنقول (احنا انا واصحابي في الثورة على طول الطريق) انه عيب مينفعش نقول عليهم كده

احنا نظف مهما كانوا قذرين

طب لما الناس ماتت في عهد مرسي.. هما قالوا يستاهلوا

لا بنقول لبعض برضه لا الدم له حرمة محدش يستاهل يموت غدر

هما قالوا حاجات كتير

واحنا بالعافية بنتنفس

احنا لو قولنالهم متبالغوش بنبقى بنستهين بحرمة الدم وبنلوث ايدينا بالدم

تونس دفعت 98 شهيد … ومخدتش حاجة

احنا عدينا الـ 1500 شهيد (قبل ثورة الانقلاب وضد الانقلاب) … ومخدناش حاجة

سوريا عدت عشرات الالاف ومش هياخدو حاجة

انا بعيط جوايا دلوقتي… مش قادرة اعيط لانه مفيش دموع تاني وعينيا نشفت

ده برده عايزة افتكره

أنا بكرهني لاني خلقت انسانة

انا عايزة اكون فراشة في جنينة.. او طائر زي طائر المينا او اي حاجة

اغلب الناس مضايقة من وجودي في الدنيا

يا رب لو هما زعلانين اوي كده خدني عندك

او دخلني غيبوبة .. دخلني غيبوبة مشوفش فيها غير اصحابي ومحدش يشوفني فيها غير الي طايقني

او غيوببة يخلص كل ده فيها واحب حد بجد واخلف معاه بيبي يملى حياتي بهجة لحد ما يتخرج من الجامعة ويحضني ويقولي انا راجلك ويبقى عندي قرة عين

او اي غيبوبة ترضاها بس ميكونش فيها الناس الي مش عايزني

احتا اصلا عايشين في عالم موازي محدش معترف بيه

دم اصحابنا الي بيروح ومحدش جايب سيرته اصلا

كانه عمره ما كان موجود

كان  اخر مرة عنف بعد 28 يناير كانت موقعة الجمل… ثم بدأ عصر العنف تاني بعد ما السيسي جه

كانه عمرنا ما احنا متنا

كانه عمرنا ما اتعرينا ولا اتسحلنا

كانه عمر ما ستات مننا ماتت

كانه عمر ما الشرطة دخلت الميدان في محمد محمود ومليان اطفال وستات والاختنقاات كانت للركب ولولا الاسعافات كانوا ماتو

كانه عمر وكانه عمر وكانه عمر وكانه عمر

احنا اصلًا مبنحسش ع حسب كلامهم

يا ريتنا مبنحسش

يا ريتنا مش بشر اصلًا

يا ليتني مت قبل هذا وكنت نسيا منسيا

ريحهم كلهم مننا بقى

Untitled

اسماء

27 يوليو 2013 … 7:55 دقيقة صباحًا توقيت القاهرة

عربية بلا صوت

غامضة كانت…
لم تصبغ شعرها يومًا و لم تتركه يتجاوز كتفها…
عيناها الواسعتين وشعرها الأسود وبشرتها البرونزية أكدوا على عروبتها ولكنها لم تتحدث العربية منذ وصلت إلا مع نفسها… تحدثنا عادة بالإنجليزية؛ أحيانًا تدرج بعض الفرنسية في الحديث، لكن لم أرها تستخدم العربية إلا مع دفتر صغير؛ أزعم أنه مذكراتها.

سألتها يومًا لمَ؟ قالت Thinking in Arabic brings upon a load of memory that I need to let go while being in public. I’d rather not to turn into a freak.

لا أعلم الخلفية التي جائت منها ولم أسئلها؛ قليلة الحديث عن نفسها، مبتسمة ابتسامة مهذبة بسيطة وساكنة في ركن قصي مع كوب من القهوة تنهي عملها ثم ترحل في هدوء.

يقول تلاميذها أنها مليئة بالنشاط، بها ولع غير مفهوم بالعلوم التي تدرسها، بها ولع غير مفهوم بهم ودائمًا أبوابها مفتوحة لهم للنقاش العلمي أو تبادل الحديث.
اليوم، فرت دمعة من بين جفون عينيها..التقت عينانا في تلك اللحظة فابتسمت وأشاحت بوجهها… التفتت إلى مذكراتها وعادت تكتب.. لحظتها تفهمت لم لا تتحدث العربية.

coffee_shop_journal

The effect of German propaganda between 1939 and 1945 on Egypt’s perspective of Jews after1956

Asmaa Khairy 

30th May 2013 

Presented to: Dr. Peter Polak Springer 

Qatar University 

© All copy rights reserved

The effect of German propaganda between 1939 and 1945 on Egypt’s perspective of Jews during 1956-1968

There is no doubt that the third Reich had a very good hold of propaganda inside Germany and in German occupied territories and territories they were planning to concur. One of the places they planned to concur, and where they had a rich propaganda was the Arab world. Media propaganda has a huge rule in documenting history and making it. In my paper I’ll be exploring the effect of the Nazi propaganda for the Arab world during World War 2 (WWII) on the Egyptian popular reaction toward the start of Jewish expulsion after 1956 in Egypt. To have a fair comparison I’ll be exploring the memory and existence of Jews in Egypt before 1939 and afterwards. Based on that, I’ll look into the effects of the Nazi propaganda on Egyptian perspective of Jews during and after 1956.

By 1947, Jews numbers in Egypt were approximately 64,165 Jews in different cities (Aboelghar, 2006) and through records I examined they have been living normal lives in Egypt. Jews had their trade and political lives just like everyone. As an example, by 1920 there were almost 50 papers written and distributed by Jews in three different languages: Arabic, French and Hebrew. In 1920 as well, when Talaat Harb founded Bank de Egypte, his partner was a Jew named (Youssef Katawi) and he was from a well known Alexandrian Jewish family. Even more, by 1947, 927 Jew graduated from Cairo University and 3080 from high schools across Egypt (Aboelghar, 2006).

On the other hand, there were a few elites that were worried about the constant immigration of Jews from Europe, Georgy Zidan’s writings about his trips to Palestine as an example. Zidan was born in 1861 and died in 1914 after his third trip to Palestine. He was a Christian Lebanese who lived in Egypt and founded a publishing house (Al hilal). Between the years, 1886 and 1913 Zidan had a few trips to Palestine, monitoring the Jew’s immigrations and their settlements. The Ottomans had no problem with the immigrations saying that the Jews are being oppressed in their countries and having them in Palestine to work in agriculture would do no harm; as it will bring in more taxes. (Georgy Zidan, 2009)

Georgy’s wirings were introduced by Fathi AlNimnim and published almost a century after his death in 2009. Through AlNimnim introduction he discusses Georgy’s life. An interesting incident was highlighted where there was a huge rage in the Egyptian community, when Zidan was offered a position for teaching Islamic history in Cairo University; claiming that a Christian should never be trusted to teach Islam’s history. (Georgy Zidan, 2009) Despite his position against the immigrations of Jews, and the concept of Zionism, some considered him to be a member of the Masonic movement in Egypt. (Hasan, 1970 )

To conclude, Jews in Egypt where settled in as normal citizens up until 1947 and there was no anti Semitic movement against them. However, the problems with the Jews were among some of the elites due to the fear of the immigration of Jews to Palestine currently; known as the Zionist movement in Palestine.

Moving on, in 1939, German propaganda for the Arab world and the Middle East and North Africa’s area was founded by the VII office within the foreign ministry department. (Herf, 2009) The messages prepared to be aired in Arabic were made to by typical to the German Text. In the process, orientlists along with Arabic native speakers provided the jargon used during the war between the common people. Based on it, messages were prepared carefully.

The Nazi German propaganda lasted for about 7 years in Egypt and other countries. Despite that, Egyptian writings that I’ve examined[1] of that time –during the propaganda- didn’t reflect the propaganda and didn’t refer to the German radio in anyway. However, the Nazi propaganda reflected clearly in the public Egyptian rages during the war.

Since the start of the Nazi propaganda, a sense of respect for Hitler and the third Reich was built in the Egyptian community. To the Egyptians, Hitler was a light of hope of ending the British colonialism in Egypt. This aspiration was emphasized in the Radio broadcastings during 1939-1941. These broadcasts held the message, Hitler supports your will to end the British colonialism and the Aryan race respects it too. (Herf, 2009, p. 36) These messages paid back very positive during the Nazi-British war over Egypt in the Battle known as “Al Allamein” battle. Egypt has been flooded by protests supporting Nazis, which were chanting: “Go forward Rommel” looking forward for the Nazis to come and liberate them from Britain.

Rommel lost “Al Allamein”‘s battle due to the lack of fuel for his tanks. However Egyptians were still hoping that the Nazis will liberate them. This reflects in the Elder’s popular cultures that I’ve examined growing up in Egypt. These stories are told by grandparents to the new generations. My grand-ma narrated this story to me, explaining its effects, hopes and depressions of the battle on her and her community. So, eventually Rommel’s memory, as well as the Nazi in Egypt became the memory and the symbol of an unexplained will for an unknown status. And it still shows in today’s writings and popular culture. As an example, a blogger named Ahmed M. Eissa blogged in 2008 about a personal rough time saying: “I felt like “Go forward, Rommel” as our grand-dads used to say. I needed my situation to end even if I’ll face something worse.” (Eissa, 2008)

Summing this part up, the Nazi propaganda didn’t reflect in the writings of that time. It was however reflected in the popular actions and memorable in the popular culture. These reflections started appearing in 1942 and continued till present. The Nazi propaganda in the Arab world stopped after the end of the war, however, some of its messages reflected later in the Egyptian propaganda on the expulsion of the Jews.

Moving on, shortly after World War 2, the Israeli state was declared on the land of Palestine on the 15th of May 1948 as the land of the “Jews”. The war between Arabs and Israel started in May 1948 to return Palestine to the Arabs. This war lasted for 10 months and ended in March 1949 with the loss of the Arab armies. The Egyptian army’s officers at the time accused King Farouk of buying ruined machinery and guns as a betrayal to Egypt. They said, this shipment of arms have made us lose the war. (Hussien, 2001) They accused the Ottomans of being in favor of the Jews against the Arabs and backed that up by the allowance of the Ottomans for Jews to immigrate into Palestine since 1886, buy lands and work in agriculture (Georgy Zidan, 2009).

Dr. Hussien, the secretary of King Farouk says that this was an invalid argument and all the investigation that was done said that King Farouk had nothing to do with it and that he was not guilty with what he was charged with. In 1952, the revolution started and the king was expelled, the redone investigation also proved nothing against him and up till now there are no documents that support the army’s accusation except the army itself. (Hussien, 2001). However, in all the Nakba war (1948-1949) has almost no effect on the status of Jews in Egypt.

 

Later on, when the revolution emerged and Mohamed Naguib took the authority in Egypt 1952, the political status was not stable; so Gamal AbdEl Nasser took over. Not long after he took over, Abdel Nasser started implementing socialism in Egypt. Some argue that that was the start of the conflict with Egyptian Jews, as they were in hold of a large sum of capital. (Aboelghar, 2006) However that wasn’t their case alone. The public at that time was not against any ethnicity, they were forced by Abdel Nasser’s propaganda to hate capitalists and move towards a socialist Arab World. The picture on the side is of a paper’s front page at the time, defines Abdel Nasser’s laws that were aiming to implement socialism in Egypt. The subjected individual’s property limits, the percentages of workers in the parliament and minimum wages, etc.

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However, there was a significant about German propaganda regarding Jews as a race in the literature published before 1956. In 1954, Ihsan Abdel Qudos published his Novel “Ana Horra” which translates into: I’m free. In this novel the hero meets a Jew friend and visits their alley and spends time with them. She notices that there is nothing bad about them, even if their nose is hooked and they love money very much. However, throughout the novel, the hero is corrupt and the society argues that it’s due her hanging out with the Jews. (Abdelkodous, 1954) This concept was a base of a future “enemy within” conspiracy theory.

In 1954 as well, Abdel Nasser made a speech on the 1st of May; workers day, accusing the Jews of being both Zionists and communists. He said that Zionism and communism are both faces of the same coin. He accused a certain Jew named: Henry Corel of being the funder for these movements in Egypt. This was though Henry Corel was known for being an anti-Zionist communist activist. Abdel Nasser’s speech was supported by Islamists newspaper “Al Dawa” that was published by the Muslim Brotherhood. They said that both communists and Zionists wanted to rule the world and they both should be fought against as enemies. (Aboelghar, 2006)

The activist Henry Corel was expelled from Egypt and went to France prior the Suez Canal Crisis. He is, to our current days, known for being loyal to Egypt even after his expulsion and his Egyptian nationality has been taken away. Prior the Suez Crisis, Corel supplied Abdel Nasser, through Tharwat Okasha, the French plan of the attack on the Canal. (Abbas, 2012) (Aboelghar, 2006) This ciris happened when Egypt started having connections with the communist soviet union and after Abdel Nasser started to nationalize suez canal. Though Henry Corel tried to help, there was no acoknoldgment of him and he was never given back his nationality, says Wael Abbas in his article.

Furthermore, after 1956 the Egyptian Jews were considered the inner enemy that should be getten rid of for the country to survive. This happened because the Isreali, along with the west attach on the Canal. This was a reflection of the Nazi propaganda which propagated that the Jews along with the west are conspiring against you. And the Israeli attacked emphasised that message.

Due to the fact that the Jews became the inner enemy, percaurations were taken to eliminate the threat. Similar to Hitler’s strategies, male Jews were arrested and put into collective prisions in Jewish schools. Women and children were locked at their homes and were not allowed out. As an example of the 900 Jew were arrested in Cairo, 500 of them were locked up in Al Abassya Israelian school. (Abbas, 2012)

In another form of supressing, Jews were forced out of the country and this was highlighted by media as the victory of the time. In “Akhr Saa’ “ (The last hour) magazine, issue of 28th of November 1956, head lines said: “Those of no nationality who indangered Egypt are now leaving to their countries or any country the wish. They will never come back.” This headline was put along with the pictures of the expulsion below in addition to three sentences that translate to: “Donations to the enemy – Freezing their money – Destructing Egypt’s economy” (Saa’, A trip with no return, 1956) It was documented that after 1956, around 40~50 thousand Jew left Egypt either expeled or migerated to run away of the grivences. (Aboelghar, 2006) Most of the deported travelled to Europe, America or Isreal. However, there are no official documents of their destinations, the only documents avaliable in the Egyptian archive that they were deported with no chance of return.

sortie_sans retour

 

 

 

departure2

 

This propaganda to support these actions, was in a lot of ways similar to Hitler’s. Mainly it’s similar to Hitler’s announcement of the Jew as inner enemies and denouncing them. It’s also similar to the stab in the back conspiracy theory conducted by Nazi’s.

Common messages expressed in the Egyptian memory of the Egyptian Jews compared with the German memory would be summarized in the physical shape, economical standard and the inner enemy. Jews are expressed in the Egyptian literature by the same biological features that Jews were discriminated against by in Nazi Germany. Also, Jews are left in the Egyptian memory as people who had “The” money. Last but not least, Israel’s support in Egypt and the base for the Zionist movement ruling over Egypt; inner enemy.

To conclude, the research conducted showed that the Nazi propaganda in Egypt during1939- 1945 didn’t influence much the manner people dealt with Jews, neither their acceptance of their expulsions in 1956. It however impacted their reactions to incidents during the war; I.e Al Allamein’s Battle.  Despite that, messages from the Nazi propaganda were re-used or reflected in Abdel Nasser’s propaganda during 1952-1958.  It has also affected Nasser’s strategies dealing with the Jews from school prisons to major expulsions.

My recommendations for further studies on the topic would be to study the effect of the Nazi’s propaganda on Abdel Nasser, his society and his media strategies makers. I would also recommend further comparative studies of the memory of the Jews in the Egyptian memory with the German, before and after the expulsions and the genocide. These studies will help us fully understand the effect of the media, national and global, in the making of history and the documentation of it.

 

 

 

 

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[1] The political History of Egypt 1945-1952 By Tarek Al Bishrey

Yehia Haqy’s articles

Youssef Edris’s articles

وطني ؟

في الأيام الأخيرة،

أصبح الاحساس بالغربة احساسًا هينًا امام احساس عدم الانتماء الذي يجتاحني..

اشعر بأنني لا انتمي إلى حيث أنا… لا انتمي إلى صوت الإحباط الذي يغزوني

أنا. عايزة . أختفي

والمشكلة انه مش عارفة حاجة ولا عارفة عايزة ايه ولا عارفة اي حاجة

احيانًا بحس اني عايزة اكل حاجة

بنتمي وجدانيًا للبطاطس المهروسة

ناعمة وسخنة وهادية وبتخلص من غير دوشة وبتشبع

مالية مركزها رغم ضعفها

مخنوقة جدًا من كل حاجة في الحياة ..

فقدت بوصلتي لبر الأمان او بمعنى اصح تهت

بسبب كلام ملوش اي لزمة خلاني اراجع خطة الطريق بتاعتي

انا انسانة لست على قيد الحياة كما يجب

أنا أصلًا فقدت الرغبة في كل شيء

الابتسام حلو

بس الأكل المسكر مش حلو

أنا مبحبوش

أنا عايزة أروح البحر

المدينة كئيبة وخنقة ..

وحشني البحر جدًا

اسكندرية ………….

غالبًا في طفلة جوايا متخيلة انها ممكن تدوب في البحر .. وتتناثر في الكون وتشوف كل حاجة

في عالم موازي بقوانين فيزائية اخرى

ربما

انا بخرف

تصبحوا على خير

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أسماء

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